As many readers of the Qrator Labs blog know, DDoS attacks target aims at different network levels. In particular, a substantial botnet presence allows an intruder to carry out attacks on the L7 (application layer) and mimic regular users. Without such a botnet the attacker is forced to limit packet attacks (any of those allowing the source address forgery at some stage of execution) to the underlying transit networks levels.
Naturally, in both these scenarios attacker tends to use some existing toolkit — just like a website developer does not write it entirely from scratch, using familiar frameworks like Joomla or Bootstrap (or something else depending on one’s skills). For example, the well-known framework for executing attacks from the Internet of Things for a year and a half is Mirai, open-sourced by its authors in an attempts to shake the FBI off the tail in October 2016.